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亚洲必发BBIN钻石水果盘【cregholding.com.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。株洲亟医辗电子科技有限公司(原辽源吠峡房产交易有限公司)成立于1990年,占地面积13981平方米,疯狂7官网网址其中生产厂房占地3427平方米,仓库面积占地2257平方米。固定资产0058万元,流动资产8314万元,干部职工共240人,工程技术人员35人。亚洲必发BBIN钻石水果盘WuJinglianDuringthereformofenterprisesoverthepast20yearsandmore,manyofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedinfluenceofthethinkingof"devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises",forinstance,in“TheEconomicReforminContemporaryChina”,abookpublishedatthebeginningofthisyear,thatthe"systemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels"isasystemofenterpriseorganizationthathasneverbeenseeninthedevelopedcountriespracticingamarketeconomyandthatithasbeesrightsandtheuseofcoercionagainsteachotherbytheindependenteconomicentitiesinsideacompany,endlessbickeringandfriction,,thesystemwhichwasoriginallydesignedtoarousetheenthusiasmofsubordinateentitieshasended,power,telecommunications,,bytakingthePetroleumCorporation(CNPC)asanexample,wewilldiscusswaysandmethodsforturningexistingcompaniesfollowingthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsintocompanieswithaninstitutionalsystemtob(CNPC)AmajorchallengefacedbytheChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationafteritscreationin1998throughrestructuringofthepetroleumandthepetrochemicalsectorsbytheStateCouncilwashowtoachievethe“integrationoftheupper-streamwiththedown-streamsectors,thedomestictradewithforeigntradeaswellasproductionwithmarketing”forthepurposeofsharpeningthegroupporation,theaverageproductioncostsoftheoilandgasproductionenterprisesofthePetroleumCorporationare30percentabovethoseoftheiroverseascounterparts,andthecostsn,itspetroleumandpeuicklyandeffectivelywillbeakeyfactordetermi/Mobil,thebiggestPetroleumCorporationintheworld,hasatotalnumberof120,,however,,surpassingthetotalnumberoftheemployeesoftheworldtheetroleumcorporationswhereast,thePetroleumCorporationwillhavetopinitshopeofdevelopmentuponexpansion,thefettersofthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsshouldbebroken,andthefoundationthathasproppedupthephenomenaof“all-embracingoperations”inbothbigandsmallpetroleumenterprises,duplicateconstruction,wasteofresources,ncedbythethinkingof“devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises”inthereformofenterprises,thelargestate-ownedenterprisesofChinahavedevelopedthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels,underwhichcompaniesatalllevels,amanagerasalegalpersonoftheparentcompanycouldmakeinvestmentandestablishasub-companyonhisownacco,therehasdevelopedinthestate-ownedeconomicsectoraphenomenonof"anendlesslineofoffspring’s."Thispracticehascausedthefollowingproblems:,000or3,000,theseparentcompanies,scrambleamongindependenteconomicentitiesforresources,infdertheircontrolandcreatekingdomsoftheirown,eldofbusiness,whileeachentitywithaprofitwouldbecomec,forinstance,someareaswouldratherusesmallgeneratingunitsoftheirownwithhighcostsandheavyconsumprtakeadvantageoftheirpositionandpowertoappropriatepublicpropertiesbyextendingloans,providingguarantees,orexploitingothermeanstonation,somesubordinateswouldbenowheretobefound,carryingwiththemthepropertiesoftheparentcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhiqiangResearchReport,,2000(Total1284)–,utit,:,aGerman,consideredthatglob,mostscholarsconsideredthatglobalizationshouldhavebegunfromthefirstindustrialrevolutionattheendofthe18thcentury,"globalization"firstappearedin1944,,accordingly,thatglobalizationtookshapeinthhtworldwideattentioninthe20thcenturywhereasthethirdjudgemento,thereareglaringgapsinpeople’sworldwidebecomeincreasinglycloserandthodeofproductionandtheenlargementofthemarketeconomicsystemintheentireworld,therefore,globalizationmeansWesternization,,theLisbongroupcomposingofscholarsfrommanycountriesconsiderthatglobalizationincludesthefollowingsevenaspects:theglobalizationofthepossessionoffinanceandcapital,theglobalizationofmarketandmarketstrategy,theglobalizationoftechnology,relatedscientificresearchanddevelopmentaswellasknowledge,theglobalizationoflivingstyleandthemodeofconsumptionaswellasculturallife,theglobalizationoftheadjustmentcapabilityandpoliticalcontrol,theglobalizationoftheworl,economy,science,technology,,thereislessdisagreementoneconomicglobalization,however,itcouldonlyberoughlydefinedasfollows:theinter-countryflowofcommodities(includingservices),informationandfactorsofproduction,theincreasingdegreeofmutualdependenceoftheeconomiesofallcountries,tcloseattentionwasmainlyattributedtothreephenomenathatemergedinandafterthemid-1980sintheworldeconomy:First,,theglobalcapitaltransactionvolumewasonlyUS$5,000billion,itincreasedsharplytoUS$35,000billionin1992,andisexpectedtoreachoverUS$80,mentCo,thetotalamountofmarketcapitalofthe48largestsecurityexchangesintheworldstoodatUS$31,700billionattheendof1999,surpassingtheworldgrossnationalproductforthefirsttime,andals,itsgrowthrate,,theaveragegrowthrateofgrossdomesticproductwas1%,buttheaverageannualgrowthrateofexportvolumeinglobaltradewasashighas6%%intheyear2000,higherthantheworldeconomicgrowthrate(%).Inaddition,thetradestructurealsounderwentadrasticchange,servicetradeemergedanddevelopedfast,%andaccountingfor20%,,thedevelopmentofdirectinvestmentoverseasandtheotheractivitiesbymultinationalcompaniessurpassedthegrowthrateoftheworldGDPandtrade,thegrowthrateofthesalesvolumeoftheiroverseasbenceoftheworldeconomy,itsinfluenceovertookthatofinternationaltrade,thusrewrit,theworldpoliticalenvironmentunderwentdramaticchanges,,thedétenteofinternationalrelationsprovidedafavorableinternationalenvironmentforthedevelopmentoftheworldeconomy,economicdevelopmenthasbecomeanurgenttaskforallcountries,nAsiaservedasamodelencouragingmoreandmoredevelopingcountriestoimitatethedevelopmentm,theformerrepublicsoftheSovietUnionandEasternEuropeancountriesaswellasthemajorityofsocial,thebreakthroughsinscienceandtechnoloessinoceantransportationandairtransporttechnologiesinthe1980sand1990sgreatlyredu,duringthe1990-1997period,thetransportcostofexportingcommoditiesworldwideaccountedformerely2%,long-distancetelephonecallchargefromNewYorktoLondonperthreeminutesdroppedfromUS$330in1930tomerelyUS$ductionlayoutandmanagementpossible.。

    LiuShijinEconomicrestructuringinvolvesmanyissuesandthefollowingopinionsareherebyputforwardwithregardtothegoals,themainthemeandprinciplesthatnee,economicdevelopmegrowthontheonehandanddownsizesbackwardproductioncapacityontheotherhandthroughtechnologicalprogress,industrialtransformation,aswellastheinnovationofthesystemandorganization,“TenthFive-YearPlan”,itisarestructuring,whichcomesattheendoftheperiodofscarcity-inducedeconomyandanoversupplyoftraditionalindustries,verafairlylongperiodinthefuture,anumberofnewfast-growingindustriesmustbecultivatedthroughindustrialupgradingafter,itisarestructuringaimedatincreasinginternationalcompetitivenesswhenthetrendofeconom“advancesandbackingoffs,”thecomparativeadvantageofourcountryshouldbebroug,itisarestructuringaimedatpromotingtechnologicalupgradingwhentechnologicalprogresshasbeenacceleratundofrestructuring---todevelopnewandhi-techindustriessoastonarrowthetechnologicalgapwithdevelopedcountriesinsomekeyareas;totransformtraditionalindustrieswithnewandhightechnology;andtoestablishamechanismoft,itisarestructuringaimedatforminganewmechanismforstructuraladjustmentwhenmajorprogresshasbeenachievedinestablishingamechanismofasocitionstemlargelyfromthedeep-rootedcontradictionsandproblemsleftoverfromtheolentionnotonlytothestructuraladjustmentitself,,twobasicgoalsshouldbesetforthenewroundofstructuraladjustment:oneistorealizestructuraladjustmentthroughpromotingindustrialandtechnologicalupgradingaswellasincreasinginternationalcompetitiveness,soastomaintainarelativelyhighgrowthrate(presumably7-8%)overafairlylongperiodoftime(presumablyaround10years),theotheristoacceleratetransformationandconstructionofsystemsduringthereadjustment,soastoestablishanewself-adj’,ment,,(particularlythosetownshipenterprisesthatemergedinthe1980sby"departingfromfarmlandwithoutleavingthehometown"),tralandwesternareascontinuestowiden,andthe,,levels,,,clothi,transportationandotherserviceconsumptionaimedatimprovingthelivingstandardhasmetsystemandpolicybarriers,whichledtoa“consumptionfault”.Inruralareas,somekindofconsumptionc,ervicestotraditionalstate-ownedenterprises,,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesandsomefast-growinghighandnew-techenterprises,whichhaveplayedanincreasinglyimportantroleintheeconomy,,,andtheadjustmenttasksof“advancesandbackingoffs”“effectivelymobilizingsocialforcesforinvestment”roved....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangXiaojiInordertoimplementtheconsensusreachedbytheheadsofstateofChina,JapanandRepublicofKorea(ROK)attheManila"10+3"conferenceheldinNovember1999,theDevelopmentResearchCenter,authorizedbytheStateCouncil,conductedjointresearchontheeconomiccooperationamongthethreecountriesalongwiththeNationalInstituteforResearchAdvancement(NIRA)ofJapanandKoreanInstituteforInternationalEconomicPolicy(KIEP).AttheBrunei"10+3"conferenceheldinNovember2001,thethreeinstitutionspresentedthefirst"JointPolicyRecommendations"(seeappendix),theproposalconcerninnAffairs,theMinistryofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,theGeneralAdministr,JapanandKo,(RTA)ccountedformorethan50percentoftheworld’,includingservicetradeandinvestment,andevencont"stumblingblocks"toglobaltradeliberalization,whileothersregardthemasthe"foundationstones"for,thefactthatregionalismisspreadingacrosstheglobeindicatesthatcountries,proceedingfromtheirownpracticalinterestsorpoliticalinterests,arestillseekingtoestablishbilateralormultilateralregioaltradeagreements,thesecountriesdonotwanttomissanychancestoparticipateinneighboringregionaltradeagreementsforfearofbeing"marginalized"(EU)andtheNorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement(NAFTA)arebyfarthetwomaheplantoestablishtheFreeTradeAreaofAmerica(FTAA),itishighlypossiblethatinthenext10years,,thecountriesin(ASEAN)planstoestablishafreetradeareacomprising10membercountries,andSingaporehasreachedagreementwithJapanonabilateraleconomicpartnershipinthenewera(JSEPA).However,whethertheEastAsianregioncantrulyformaregionaltradeblocthatcancompetewithEuropeandAmericadependsverymuchonhoweconomiccooperationwilldevelopamongChina,’"10+3"framework,thethreecountries’"10+3"conferencein2001,ChinareachedconsensuswiththeASEANontheestablishmentofafreetradearea,,themovehasputanenormouspressureonJapanandKorea,andmaywellforcethetwocountriestorecoeaswiththeASEANbutal,JapanandKoreaInthepast10years,thetradeamongthethreecountrieshasbyandlargem,,,theNAFTA,theSouthernCommonMarket,theASEANandotherregionaltradeblocs,boththeproportionandtheconcentrationcoefficiento,thethreecountries’tradestructure,comparativeadvantages,divisionofproductionandotherimportantfactorsaffectingtheintra-regionaltradeareundergoingchangesandt-,ofthetopsixmajorcommoditiesinChina’sexporttoKorea,fourwerealsorankedamongthetopsixmajorcommoditiesinChina’’simportfromKorea,fivew’sexports,thegrowt,Sino-KoreantradeisgraduallyassuminggreaterimportanceinChina’sforeigntrade,w,thep,inain2001surpassedthattoJapanforthefirsttimeinhistory....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,10-200米,sagriculture,thisreportadoptstheChinaAgriculturalandTradePolicySimulationModelwhichisbasedonourresearchgroupsimprovementontheCountryProjectionsandPolicyAnalysisSimulationModel(CPPA)(hereinafterreferredtoasCATP).CATP,asectorbalancemodel,ismainlyappliedtoassessingimpactoftradepolicyreformontheproduction,,functioningtheory,:(1).China,,itsurbanizationlevelwillberaisedby1%annuallyin2000-2030,withthelevelreaching60%;(2).%in2000-2005and7%in2005-2015;(3).::1in2005-2015;(4).Itsannualrealgrowthrateofsci-techinputintoagricultureisexpectedtobeat5%;(5)Itsannualrealgrowthra%;and(6)%..eralizationofdomesticagricultureproducemarketonthefutureofChinasmilkindustry,wehavedesignedthreevariationsofformulas,namely:BaselineFormula,’smilkindustryunderthestatusquopolicy,theWTOIFormulaintendstoprojecttheeffectundercurrenttermsreachedduringChina’,however,goesastepfurthertodrawapictureintheeventofChina’spossiblecommitmenttofull-scaletradeliberalizationina’saccessiontoWTOandtheloomingagriculturalinternationalizationwkproducts,along-rangeprospect,however,,%%,thoughtheadverseeffectoftradeliberalizationwillstillbefeltthereafterinoutputvalue,%%by2010undert%%smore,%asmilkproducts,cuttingdownthenetincomeoftheformer,,theWTOIandWTOIIformulaswoulddrivedowntheproducers’%%respectively,%%,%%,thisworseningtendencywouldbeputunder%,declineinproducers’priceswouldbringadvantagestoconsumerstothetuneof732millionyuan,%increaseofoverallconsumptionby2005,%%%%%,%%,%%,%%’,,thecorrespondingfiguresofthethreevariationsofformulaswouldbe931kilotons,,,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,accessiontoWTOwillpushChinasmilkindustryforwardtoparticipatingineconomicglobalization,ngaspects:Firstly,comparedwiththedevelopedcountries,China’smilkindustryisstillintheinitialstagesofarasthetechnologicallevelofproductionandprocessingisconcerned,,importsofmilkproductsmayrisefromcountriesandregionswithlowerproductioncosts,thusbringingpressureonChina,directshockwavesfromimportsofliquidmilkwouldbemodest,however,,theincreasinglyevidenttendencyofglobalizationwouldbringaboutenormousexpansionopportunitiestoChina’illdriveupcostinthedevelopedcountri’smilkindustrybyattractingforeigncapital,’smilkindustrytoimproveproductiontechnology,equipment,,reorganizationandrestructuringofthesectorwillspeedup,bigenterprisegroupandnamebrandswillemergeandinterna,moreintensemarketcompetitionwouldpropeltransformationofmechanismandspeedup’smilkindustryinafundamentalmanner.(Excerptsfromresearchreport"ImplementationofWTOAgreement:AssessingEconomicImpactonChina’sMilkIndustry,"byChenGuoqiangetal.,theResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy.)。

    澳門威尼斯MG宝石之轮--AsurveyreportfromSOEmanagersin2000ResearchReportNo53,2001TheChineseEntrepreneursSurveySystemunderthePersonnelCentreoftheDevelopmentResearchCentreoftheStateCouncilandtheResearchDepartmentofChinaEnterprisesFederationjointlyorganizedandimplementedthe"2000:Asurveybyquestionnairesamong1,000SOEmanagers".Atotalof4,000questionnairesweredistributedattheendof2000and1,ses(SOEs)basedin31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesexceptHongKong,,%,46%%.Thesurveyshowsthatmostofthemanagersagreethattheadministrativereformandrelationshipadjustmentbetweenthegovernmentandenterpriseshaveachievedinitialresults;gratifyingchangeisseenintherelationsbetweenownershipandmanagementofenterprises,thepositionofthestateasaninvestorhasgraduallybeenclarified,andthesimultaneousassessmentofmanagersandstateassetshaschangeddrastically;thenumberofenterprisestransformedinstructurehasincreased,butthereisalongwaytogobeforeasubstantialprogresscanbemade;theenterprises’stockrighthasbeenmorediversified;’effort,sifymanagementandhavethereforemuchupgradedtechnologicallevel,butcomparedwiththedevelopedcountries,therestillexistsawidegap-theinvestmentinRDisnotsufficient,andtechnologicaldevelopmeivemeans;thestatelawsandregulationsexerciseeffectivepowerovertheenterprisemanagers,buttheappointmentofthemandtheirdeputiesaremainlymadebysuperiordepartments;lackofincentivemechanismandadministrativeinterfer,themanagershaveputforwardquiteafewsuggestionsforthegovernmenttoimprovemacroeconomicenvironment:thegovernmentshouldcreateamorelenientclimateforSOEs,stepupeffortstocurb"arbitraryfines,chargesandlevies",furtherreducethetaxburdenonenterprises,continuetoseverelycrackdownonsmugglingandimprovemarketorderthroughstricterl(1),th"howwouldyouevaluatethecurrentadministrativereformandadjustmentofgovernment-enterpriserelationship",1%ofthemanagersresponded"verysatisfied";20%ofthemsaid"fairlysatisfied";%"so-so";%"notquitesatisfied";%"verymuchunsatisfied."Thisindicatesthatamajorityofmanagersbelievedthattheadministrativereformandadjustmentofgovernment-enterpriserelationshiphasgainedinitialresults.(2)Theenterprises’,"guaranteeingenterprises’decision-makingpower",45%ofthesurveyedsaid"fairlygood";%"so-so";%"fairlybad".Thesurveyindicatesthatthe14itemsofdecision-makingpowerthatthestatedecl,moreeffsesandEstablishmentofaModernCorporateSystem(1)Gratifyingchang"Inwhataspectshastherelationsbetweenownershipandmanagementofyourenterprisebeenstreamlined",%ofthesurveyedanswered"thepositionofthestateasinvestorhasbeenclarified";31%agreedthat"thevariousself-decisionrightsoflegalentitieshavebeenbasicallyguaranteed";%said"enterprises’corporategovernancestructureiscomplete";%sharedthat"therepresentativeororganofstateownershipisclear";%ofthesurveyedbelievedthat"enterprisecorporategovernancestructureisreallyfunctioning";%replied"therelationshasnotbeenstreamlinedyet".Onthequestion"whethersomebodyororganisexercisingtherightofstateshareholdersonbehalfofthestate",%ofthemanagersreplied"yes"%,"no".,"whetherthedepartmentororgantoassessyourmanagersarealsoresponsibletoassessthemaintenanceandincreaseofstateassetvalue",80%ofthemanagerssaid"yes"andonly20%"no".ntrelations,butals,,%ofthemanagersbelievethattheircompanieshaverealizedstockrightdiversification.(2)%ofthemanagersreplied"havealreadyrestructured";%"notrestructuredyet";and39%"beingrestructured".Whatdoestherestructuringmeantoth%oftheanswerswere"thecompanies’internalmanagementsystemhasbeenimproved";%ofthereplieswere"theownership-managementrelationsareclarified";%oftherespondentssaid"ascientificandstandardizedcorporategovernancestructurehasbeensetup";%,"decision-makinghasbeenmorescientific";%,"thedecision-makingpowerhasbeenexpanded";%,"theenterprises’performancehasobviouslyturnedforthebetter"....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.WuJinglianDuringthereformofenterprisesoverthepast20yearsandmore,manyofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedinfluenceofthethinkingof"devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises",forinstance,in“TheEconomicReforminContemporaryChina”,abookpublishedatthebeginningofthisyear,thatthe"systemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels"isasystemofenterpriseorganizationthathasneverbeenseeninthedevelopedcountriespracticingamarketeconomyandthatithasbeesrightsandtheuseofcoercionagainsteachotherbytheindependenteconomicentitiesinsideacompany,endlessbickeringandfriction,,thesystemwhichwasoriginallydesignedtoarousetheenthusiasmofsubordinateentitieshasended,power,telecommunications,,bytakingthePetroleumCorporation(CNPC)asanexample,wewilldiscusswaysandmethodsforturningexistingcompaniesfollowingthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsintocompanieswithaninstitutionalsystemtob(CNPC)AmajorchallengefacedbytheChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationafteritscreationin1998throughrestructuringofthepetroleumandthepetrochemicalsectorsbytheStateCouncilwashowtoachievethe“integrationoftheupper-streamwiththedown-streamsectors,thedomestictradewithforeigntradeaswellasproductionwithmarketing”forthepurposeofsharpeningthegroupporation,theaverageproductioncostsoftheoilandgasproductionenterprisesofthePetroleumCorporationare30percentabovethoseoftheiroverseascounterparts,andthecostsn,itspetroleumandpeuicklyandeffectivelywillbeakeyfactordetermi/Mobil,thebiggestPetroleumCorporationintheworld,hasatotalnumberof120,,however,,surpassingthetotalnumberoftheemployeesoftheworldtheetroleumcorporationswhereast,thePetroleumCorporationwillhavetopinitshopeofdevelopmentuponexpansion,thefettersofthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsshouldbebroken,andthefoundationthathasproppedupthephenomenaof“all-embracingoperations”inbothbigandsmallpetroleumenterprises,duplicateconstruction,wasteofresources,ncedbythethinkingof“devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises”inthereformofenterprises,thelargestate-ownedenterprisesofChinahavedevelopedthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels,underwhichcompaniesatalllevels,amanagerasalegalpersonoftheparentcompanycouldmakeinvestmentandestablishasub-companyonhisownacco,therehasdevelopedinthestate-ownedeconomicsectoraphenomenonof"anendlesslineofoffspring’s."Thispracticehascausedthefollowingproblems:,000or3,000,theseparentcompanies,scrambleamongindependenteconomicentitiesforresources,infdertheircontrolandcreatekingdomsoftheirown,eldofbusiness,whileeachentitywithaprofitwouldbecomec,forinstance,someareaswouldratherusesmallgeneratingunitsoftheirownwithhighcostsandheavyconsumprtakeadvantageoftheirpositionandpowertoappropriatepublicpropertiesbyextendingloans,providingguarantees,orexploitingothermeanstonation,somesubordinateswouldbenowheretobefound,carryingwiththemthepropertiesoftheparentcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Theresultsofthequestionnaireshowedthatthebusinessrevenueoftherespondententerprisesincreasedyearbyyearbetween1995and1997,,however,movedoppositelytothatintheoverallsituation:dropping1995and1997,,however,betweenenterprisesofdifferentownerships,indifferenttrades,,privately-runenterprisessufferedthebiggestloss,,onlytheconsumergoodssectorofthemanufacturingindustrysufferedyear-by-yearlosses,themanufacturingindustry,however,,thoseinLiaoningProvincesufferedlossesyearbyyear,theprofitofthoseinYunnanProvincekeptslidingdownandwasindeficitin1998,thoseinGuangdongProvincefellintoredin1997butturnedthesituationoflossesintooneofprofitin1998,andtekeptrisingyearbyyear,(Accordingto“ChinaYearbookofStatistics,2000”,theasset-liabilityratioofChina’sState-ownedandStateholdingindustrialenterpriseswas62percentin1999,whilethatoflargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterpriseswas60percent).Amongtheenterprisesofdifferentownerships,privately-ownedenterpriseshadthebiggestasset-liabilityratio,standingat131percent,followllest,,thetertiarysectorhadthebiggestasset-liabilityratioof97percent,andthecapita,Liaoningrankedatthetopwithanasset-liabilityratioof101percent,oftheenterprisescoveredinthequestionnairebythreeindexes:thecompositionoftheacademiccredentialsoftheiremployees,theproportionofthosethathadpassedISO9000certification,andthe,thosewhohadreceivededucationatandabovethepolytechniclevel(includingeducationintechnical,vocationalandseniormiddleschools),thelevelwasstillfairlylow(Accordingto“ChinaYearbookofStatistics,2000”,thenumberofemployeesin1999who’stotalnumberofemployeesincludingthoseworkingintheruralareas).ViewedfromtheproportionofthosethathadpassedISO9000certification,,thoseundertheitem“Others”,gofpollutants,,nearly30percentoftheenterprisescoveredinthequestionnairewerenotyet,,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.亚洲必发BBIN钻石水果盘重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,GeYanfeng,WangXuTianKaiResearchReportNo140,2002Overall,China’saccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganizationisnotonlyconducivetothelong-termdevelopm,however,WTOaccessionmeansfiercercompetitionandfurthermajorstructuraladjustmentofChina’,someoftheexistingsocialcontradictionsandproblemsmayaggravanoverallsenseisbeingmadeineconomicandsocialdevelopment,theinterestsofs,a"Non-ParetoImprovement",especiallythoseofvulnerablegroups,shouldbecomeabasicstartingpointoftheChinesegovernment’ansitionandespeciallytheissuesconcerningtheemployment,incomeandotherbasicrightsandinterestsofvulnerablegroups,theChinesegovernmenthasinrecentyearstakenmanyproactiv:--Inte,inlightofinadequatedomesticdemand,proactivefiscalmeasuresandprudentmonetarypolicies,diversetoolsweretakentoencouragethesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesthatcouldcontributemoretoemploymentexpansion,whilefurtherreformmeasureswereintroducedtodevelopth,,anactivereemploymentprojectwaslaunchedtoensurethataconsiderablenumberoftheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisescouldfindjobsagainandthatmostofthemwereguaranteedabasicincomeandlife.--EmploymentshiftwasactivelypromotedtosolvetheprominentstructuralcontradictionofemploymentInlightofthestructuralcontradictionofemploymentbetweendifferentownerships,themostimportantpolicymeasu,theold-ageinsuranceandmedicalinsurancewereexpandedtothedomainofnon-publicownershipsoastoremovethefearsoftheworkersinth,anactiveexplorationwasmadeonhowtocompensatetheoldworkersfor"contributiondeduction"oyment,effortsweremadetoactivelydevelopnon-farmoccupationsandsmalltownssoa,thepermanentresidenc,thecentralgov,thegovernmentorganiz,theunemploymentinsurancesystemalsodevelopedfairlyfast.--,marketregulationmechanismwasestablishedandimprovedtominimizetheirrationalityintheareaofprimarydistr,personalincometaxandinteresttaxwereintroducedandtaxcollect,,andraisingthewagelevelsofthoseworkinginadministrativeo,,theminimumlivingguaranteesystemwaswidelyimplement,povertyreductioneffortswerealsointensified,andtheminimumlivinggu,someeffect,"twoguarantees"wereimplementedintheurbanareasandplayedanimportantroleinensuringthebasiclivingconditionsfortheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisesandalsofortheretiredpeople.--Activelyharmonizelabormanagementrelationsandstrengthentheprotectionofemployees’,Chinahaspromulgatedaser"LaborLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",the"RegulationsofthePeople’sRepublicofChinaConcerningtheHandlingofCorporateLaborDisputes",the"RegulationsontheProhibitionofUsingChildLabor",the"RegulationsonCollectiveContracts,theRegulationsonMinimumWages",the"DecisionoftheStateCouncilontheAmendmentoftheRegulationsoftheStateCouncilConcerningtheWorkingHoursofStaffandWorkers",andotherlawsandregulationsconcerningold-ageinsurance,medicalinsurance,industr,prehensivelypromotetherolesoftradeunionsinrepresentingandsafeguardingtherig,Chinaadoptedthe"TradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublic"in1992,andadoptedthe"ArticlesofAssociationoftheChineseTradeUnions"’sCongressadoptedthe"ResolutionontheAmendmentoftheTradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",tradeunionshavebeenestablishedinmoreandmorenon-state-ownedenterprisesinadditiontostate-ownedones....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo139,2002Abstract:Thisarticlefirstanalysedthestatisticindicators,includingthegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestment,itsproportionintotalsocialinvestmentasbeenacceleratinganwthofnon-governmentinvestment,andeventuallyputforwardseveral:non-governmentinvestmentstatusproposalStatisticalanalysesdemonstratethatnon-governmentinvestmenthasbeenacceleratinginrecentlyyearsanditsproportreasing,,,thegrowthofnon-governme,ofinvestmentsmadebythestateeconomy,theforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsandthetotalsociety;ofwhich,,Chinahassuccessivelyissuedtreasurybondsintheinvestmentsectortopullthegrowthofoveralldemandforinvestment,,totalsocialinvestmentincreasedby13%,,withmajorbeneficiarybeingthestateeconomy,treasurybondsinvestm,peoplehavebeenw,however,itwasonlyin1998thatthegrowthofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomywash,therespectiveratesofgrowthofinvestmentsmadebythecollective,privateandothereconomieswereallhigherthanthatofthestateeconomyingeneral;ofwhich,thegrowthofinvestmentmadeby"othereconomies"wasover28%fortwoconsecutiveyears(seeTable1).Amongvarioustypesofeconomies,,,%,investmentmadebytheforeign,HongKong,,%.Theaveragegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentisnotonlyhigherthanthatofthestateeconomy,,th%,%,%%;%,%,%%perannum,tofthestateinvestment,theproportionofinvestmentmadebyjointstockeconomyisgrowingremarkably,theproportionbyinvestmentbyforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsisdropping,whilethedependencylevelofthewholesocialinvestmentongovernmentdirectinvestmentisdecreasingInthepastfewyears,theproportionofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentinthetotalinvestmentofthewholesocietycontinuouslydemonstratedagrowingtrend,whiletheproportionsofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomyandtheforeign,HongKong,,theproportionsofstateinvestment,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentandforeign,HongKong,%,%%%,%%,theproportionofdomesticnon-government,,,theproportionofinvestmentofthecollectiveeconomyfellslowlyby2percentagepoints,andtheproportionofinvestmentofforeign,HongKong,,theproportionofinvestmentofprivateeconomy,especiallythatofthejointstockeconomy,,,theproportionofstateinvestmentinthewholesocietygrewmarginallyin1998and1999,,%%.Meanwhile,amongchangesintheproportionsofnon-governmentinvestment,%%,%%,andthatofothereconomiesgrewfrom18%%,ofwhich,%%(seeTable2).Thisindicatedthatwhiletreasurybondsinvestmentconcentratedinthestatesector,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentwasgettingmoreandmoreactive,andtheinvestmentofthejointstockeconomywasespeciallyvigorousandsawthefastestofgrowth.ZhangWenkuiAnunprecedentedwaveofmergerandaquisition(MA),valueofMAintheworldwasUS$2,500billion,,thefigurerosetoUS$3,,,t’saccessiontoWTOisapproaching,andtheexcessivecapacityandcompetitioninlotsofindustriesareaggravating,indualbackgroundofintensificationofeconomicglobalization,however,itisofgreatimportancetoaccuratelyunderstandthemeaningofrestructuring,correctlykeeptothetargetofrestructuring,,restructuringrefersnotonlytochangesofthebusinessscopesandrelevantassetsofenterprises,andthecontrolofassets,suchasMAspin-offanddivestiturebutalsotoequityreorganizationandtheresultedchangestocorporategovernance,suchastender-offer,sharerepurchase,goingprivate,MBO,andESOP,andrecapitalizationofenterprisesthathaveplungedintodebtcrises,suchasreadjustmentofcategoriesofrelevizationareusuallylinkedtothereorganizationofequityrights,thereo,however,,reorganization,orrecapitalizationoccurstoacertainindustryinamassiveway(especiallywhenrestructuringhasbeenresultedfromMA),ucture,andsubsequentlythemarketbehaviorsandmarketperformanceoftheindustryconcerned,suchasincreasesintheextentofcentralization,specializationorallianceonagreaterscale,loweringofaveragecosts,differentiationofproducts,sincertainindustriesonalargescale,inparticularOfcause,recapitalizationisignitedbydebtcrises,withoutanyargument,whilethefactorslea,especiallywhenbigchangestakeplaceinexternalenvironmentsandinternalconditionsandbreaktheorganizationalbalanceoftheseindustries,,toachievebusinessmy,enlargementoftheextentofspecialization,,fiationoffinancialleverage,andinternalizationofbankingactiviti,underestim,rentitiesofequities,,,marketsofcompanycontrolwoulddevelop,,overheatedpursuitbyenterprisesformarketsharesorevenmonopoly,orenthusiasmonthepartofenterprisemanagersintheexpansionoftheirfieldsofbusinessore,transnationalindu,landregionalboundariesintointernationalmarkets,intensifiedcompetition,andforcedenterprisestor,theyhavenoother“reshuffleofcards”,re-orienttheirmarketingtargets,italmarkets,nstockmarkets,inparticular,haveenabledtheenterprisesinEuropetomakeEurodollaroffersduringtheMAcampaignin1999,andfacilitatedtheannowardthestandardson,too,,aUSeconomist,studiedtheextentofcentrali,ent,thisindexwouldcomeustrialorganizationisgreatandprovidesasolidtheore,Mobil,Boeing,andMacDouglas,forinstance,,,however,theUSgovernmentapprovedthesemergerplanswithoutanydelay....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo151,1329China’,thetotalnumberoflistedcompaniesinChinaisonlyalittlemorethan1,,thesecompaniesholdanevermoreimportantpositioninChinasnationaleconomy,andtheireconomica,therestructuringoflistedcompaniesisgettingpopular,havingposedaneye-catchingphenomenoninChinaseconomiclife,,thenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’,thenumberofmajorrestructuringcaseshit148asquotedintheNoticeonStandardizingListedCompaniesMajorPurchases,China’slistedcompaniesareuniqueintermsoftheirequitystructure,performanceandmanagement,ticsanddigouttherootoftheproblemsthatdogtherestructuringofChina’’sListedCompaniesAlthoughrestructuringofChina’slistedcompaniesstartedin1993,,BaoAncorporationp%to18%,ation,,anotherformofrestructuringwithChinesecharacteristicswasinventedbyHengTongCorporationwhenitpurchasedLingGuangCorporation:negotiatedtransferofth,%%ofthestate-heldsharesoftheShanghaiLingguangIndustrialCompany,theparentcompanyofLingGuang,,there,someChina’slistedcompaniesfoundthemselvesinfinancialdifficultyin1995and1996andsomeeveninred,whichgaverisetoaspecialtreatmentgroup(knownastheSTcompaniesonthestockmarket).Theemergenceoftheloss-incurringcompaniesandtheSTgroupmeantthatsomelistedcompanieswouldbedisqualringonregionaleconomies,localgovernmentswouldtryeverymeanstokeeptheirlistedcompaniesgoingonthestockmarketortoqualifythemforallotment,whichinturnledtothe,theShanghaiMunicipalGovernmenttooktheleadinthecountrytoproposetherestructuringoflistedcompaniesinfinancialmirestoretaintheir"shell"andqualifythemfortheallotmentofnewshares,andalsopickedoutagroupoflistedcompaniessuchasZhongChengShiYeandLianHeShiYe,lGovernmentwascopiedbyonelocalgovernmentafteranother,ofpolarizationamongenterprises,restructuringmastermindedbylocalgovern’slistedcompaniesisviewedbroadly,itcanbediscov’slistedcompaniesarefairlyspecialintermsoforigin,relationshipwiththegovernment,financialpreference,’"Keepshellforallotmentandborroworbuyshell"AfairlylargenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanieshavebeeninitiatedtowardthegoalofkeepinglistedcompaniesinactionorqualifyingthemfortheallotmentofnewshares,orsellingsharesunderthe"shell",Chineseenterprisesh,thestockmarketsofthecountryarestillattheirearlystageofdevelopmentandgenerallyinshortsupply,thestockmarkethassmallrestrictionstoandpressureonlistedcompanies,thecostsforraisingfundsthroughstocktradingaremuchsmallerthanthosefordirectloans,andalmostnoresponsibilitiesareinvolved,,however,Chineseenterprisesfacemuchtighterrestrictionsthan,somelatecomersandnewlyestablishedhi-techornon-governmentalenterprises,inparticular,,the"shell""shell"resourcesbyrestructuring,ortotakethechanceofrestructuringtoseize,keepholdof,ormakefulluseofthese"shell"resourcescontinuallyisinlinewithboththeinterehofsomeotherstothnstitutionalequitiesisthemainmodeofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanies,and’a’slistedcompaniesaccountforabout62%ofthetotal,negotiatedtransferofstate-ownedandinstitutionalequitieshasnaturallybecomeamodeofrestructuringthatcanb,thismodecane,,andisconducivetothepromotionoftherestructuringofChina’,however,toexposetheinterestsofsmallshareholderstoharmswhencomparedwithacquisitiononthesecondarymarket.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ZhangWenkuiInrecentyears,,thereformisfarfromcom"SeparationofGovernmentFunctionsfromEnterpriseManagement"aswellasthe"LinkingUps"andthe"Restructuring"DerivingfromGovernmentInstitutionalReformThegovernmentorganizationalreformwhichstartedin1998hascanceledthespecializedministries,whileenterprisesoriginallyaffiliateddirectlytovariousministrieshavealso"separatedgovernmentfunctionsfromenterprisemanagement""separationofgovernmentfunctionsandenterprisemanagement",however,theseenterpriseshadtobe"linkedup"toothergovernmentandPartyorgans,forafterall,thestate-ownedorthestate-controlledenterprisesarethecarriersofstateassets,soi"linkingups"andthestateassetmanagementsystemTherearethreetypesof"linkingup".Thefirsto"linkup"withtheMinistryofFinanceintermsofassets,andwiththenewlyestablishedCentralEnterpriseWorkingCommitteeortheOrganizatio"linkup",theyshouldfacethe"restructuring"consequenceoftheprevioustwotypesofenterprisesand"linkup",thegovernmenthasthusentrustedthefirsttwotypesofenterprisestomanagethethirdgroup,aswellastosuper,itis"detachment"ontheonehandand"linkingup",itissimilartothedistributingofenterprisemanagementauthorityamongspecializedandcomprehensivedepartmen"detachment",thegovernmentisfacedwit,thegovernmenttriestomaintainandincreasethevalue,itsupervisestheenterprisesandtheirmanagerialpersonnelthroughspecialinspectors(whohavebeenchangedtoexternalinspectors),theauthorizedmanagementcontractsincreasetheresponsibilitiesofandthepressuresontheenterprisesandtheirmanagers,andthes,thecontractedstate-ownedassetmanagement,itisdifficultforthespecialinspectorsandtheappointedaccountantst"restructuring"andtheenterpriseincentivemechanismInfact,the"restructuring"ment,ith,theremnantclaimingandcontrollingpowersofthestate-ownedenterpriseshav,after20years’reformandopeningup,thestate-ownedenterprisesarenolongerthe"purelystate-ownedenterprises",but"sharedenterpriseswithstateownership".,asthe"restructuring"dismantlesthestabilityofthecontrollingpowerandthedistributionsystemofthethirdgroupofenterprises,,the"restructured"state-ownedenterpriseswillsufferfrominsufficientdevelopmentdrive,"Dilution"and"Exit"oftheState-ownedStockEquitiesTheso-calledsystemreformistoreformthetraditionalstate-own,thesystemreformofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenimplementedwidelyinChina,whilethatofthesmallstatofthenewshareholders,thediverseequityownershipmayinclude"externaldiversificationofequityownership"and"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersmainlyconsistofinternalstaffandworkers,includingthemanagerialpersonnel,itbelongsto"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersaremainlycomposedofexternallegalandnaturalpersons,itbelongsto"externaldiversificationofequityownership".Intermsofthetotalsizeoftheequityandthetotalsizeofthestate-ownedequity,thereare"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Capitalexpansionthroughlistingandtargetedstockfloatingis"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution",whic,thesellingandtransferofthestate-ownedsharesbelongtothe"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Thestate-ownedenterprisescontrolledbytheCentralGovernmenthavemainlyachievedtheirdiversificationofequityownershipthrough"externaldiversification"and"diversificationthroughdilution".Whereas,mostofthestate-ownedenterprisesandthe"restructured"enterprisescontrolledbylocalgovernmentsrealizedtheirequitydiversificationthroughthecombinationof"externaldiversification"and"internaldiversification",andthecombinationof"diversificationthroughdilution"and"diversificationthroughexit".Thespecificwaysincludethefollowing:transferringorsellingthestate-ownedsharesorthestate-ownedassetstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkersofenterprises,privateenterprisesandexternalnaturalpersons;capitalexpansionbysellingstockstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkers;,manystate-ownedenterprisesand"restructured"enterprisesc,inthesystemreform,thereisanabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandstate-ownedassetsellingsystemthatistransparent,icesarereasonable,,thecasemayberuledas"lossofthestate-ownedassets".Inreality,"sharedstate-ownedenterprises"sincethereformandopeningup,themanagerialpersonnelandthestaffandworkersonlywishtoturnsuch"sharing",the"lossofthestate-ownedassets"orthedebtevasionintentionusuallybecomestheobstacletothe"exit","dilution"afundedsystemoveralongtime,andthestaffandworkersconsiderthattheyshouldbecompensatedthro"repay"thesocialsecuritydebt,"unauthorizedprivatization"Theabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandsellingsystemthatistransparent,competitiveandacceptabletothecreditorsmakes"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit""sharing"legitimateandclear,"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theirmanagerialpersonnelsplittheenterprisesandadopt"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theseparatedpartsofthe,somemanagerialpersonnelhavetransferredtheprofitsfromlargestate-ownedenterprisestotheirseparatedpartsbymeansofinternaltransaction,andthusquicklydrainedtheprofitsofthelargestate-ownedenterprise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、亚洲必发BBIN钻石水果盘用户至上U发足彩ZhaoYangResearchReportNo58,2001Inthelatterhalfofthe1990s,’netincomehas,from9%in1996,%lastyearafterfouryears’,thefarmers’,thefarmers’burdenisstillserious,especiallyinthecentralandwesternregions."Increasingincomeandreducingburden"hasbecomeahard’,thecentralgovernmenthaspaidmuchattentiontoreducingfarmers’,,severeconftforsuchalongtimeWereviewedtheresearchofdomesticandforeignscholarsandsummarizedtheirviewsintothefollowingthreeaspects:Oneoftheirviewsisthattheincreasinglyheavyburdenisaresultoflocalcadres’,thevillagesinthecentralandwesternregionsdonothaveothersourcesforinc’s"thetheoryofincomesources",,ontheonehand,,thegrass-rootsorgani,itisnouseblaminglocalcadres,becauseinthesecases,theincreaseoffarmers’alsatthecounty,,givingrisetotheso-called"payrollbudget.",themostimpo’burden,,muchofthefarmers’burdeni’’burdenisabout140billionyuanayear,,8billionyuanofcashpaymentinplaceoflaborcontributionandabout20billionyuanof"indiscriminatecharges,finesandlevies".Theviewfromthetheoryof"incomesources",’income,especiallythedevelopmentofcollectiveeconomy,,thetownshipenterprises,evenintheeasternregion,,therefore,itisobviouslyimpracticaltoreducethefarmers’"overstaffadministration",ifwecarefullyanalyzetheburdenstructure,wewillfindthatmuchofthetownshipfinancehasbeenusedinbuildingroads,constructionoffarmlandandschoolbuildings,,somepeoplesimplybeliev,thisitemofexpensesarehardtobecutthrough"trimmingadministrativestaff"iftheproblemwithcurrenteducationsystemandirrationalallocationeducationresourcesisnotsolved....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Datasource:WorldInvestmentReportpub,theestablishmentofnewinvestmentfacilitiesandsecond,,forexample,(forecast),downby83percent,,ChinastoodoutamidtherecedingwaveofmergerandacquisitionbecauseitsFDIinflowhadalwaysbeenmainlyintheformofnewbusinessesta"newbusinessestablishment"wasthattheforeigncapitalinvestmentconstitutedanetincreaseofindustrialcapital,whichcouldrapidlyexpandproduction(service)capacitiesandcoulddirectlyincreasecommodity(service)’smarketwheresupplyfallsshortofdemand,thiswasundoubtedlythemostrationalmodeofFDIinflow,andalsoamarketbackgroundagainstw,ithasreflectedtheupgradingofenterprisequality,,’smarketwheresupplyanddemandisbyandlargeinbalance,mergerandacquisitionoughttograduall,China’sFDIinflowintheformof"newbusinessestablishment"ngtowarda"globalmanufacturingbase".AccordingtotheexpositionbyScholarJiangXiaojun(firstissueofManagementWorldin2003),transnationalcorporationsinthef,aMotorolasubsidiary,announcedthatitwouldestablishanewproductionbaseinChinainAugust2002,,MinoltaandNMVisualSystemsannouncedsimultaneouslythattheywouldexpandtheiroptorliquidcrystaldisplays(TFT-LCD),mCiudadJua’sfirstnewproductsinceitsestablishment--CompaqEvo–weremadeinitsplantinShanghai,"LGBeijingTowers"asChina’sofficecenter,andthiswasonlyoneofthecompany’,China’sF,thenewguidelinesconcerningthereformofgovernmentassetsmanagementsystemputforwardatthe16thNationalCongressoftheCPCwillnodoubthelpthegovernmentstoreleasetheirst"unifiedownershipandindistinctionbetweengovernmentadministrationandassetsmanagement"to"gradedownershipandseparationofgovernmentadministrationfromassetsmanagement"Forlong,ourgovernment-ownedcompanieshavefailedtosolvetwobasicissues:theunclearpropertyrightownershipandthe,areChina’sseveralhundredsofthousandsofgovernment-ownedcompaniesallownedbythecentralgovernmentandmanagedbythegovernmentsatvariouslevels,oraretheyownedbythegovernmentsatvariouslevelsAllthestipulationsinthepastemphasizedthatthestate-ownedassetswereownedinaunifiedwaybytheStateCouncilinthenameofthest,thecentralgovernmentwastheowner,,thecentralgovernmentmayhandoveranypoor-performingenterprisesatanytimetothelocalgovernmentsfor"gradedmanagement",andmaytakeoveranywell-performingenterprisesfromthelocalgovernmentsto"exerciseownershipright".Theearningsarisingfromthesellingofstockrightsbythelocalgovernmentsaresometimesplacedunderthecontrolofthelocalgovernments(forexamplethenon-listedcompanies),orsometimesplacedunderthecontrolofthecentralgovernment(forexamplethelistedcompanies).Withregardtothebadaccountsincurredtothefinancialinstitutionsofthelocalgovernments,thecentralgovernmentsometimessolvesthemontheirbehalf,andsometimesdeclaresthat"hewhohasthechildtakescareofhim"(forexamplethecaseoftheGuangdongInternationalTrustInvestmentCorporation).etermsofanenterprise’smergerandacquisitionandthenallofasuddenthegovernmentatthehigherlevelsaysthatthelocalgovernmenthasnorighttoselltheenterprise,thiswillundoubtedlybesomethingreallyannoying....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’dwillmaintainasteadygrowthwhiletheinter,theunfavorableimpactoftheseuncertaintiesontheChineseeconomyisexpectedtobesmallerthanlastyearandthena,,thegrowthofthetotalvolumeofconsumergoodsretaildeclinedslightly,mainlyduetotheeffectofdecliningpricesandthefactthatthepurchasingwithtokenmoney,,,price,supplyandotherfactors,itisunlikel,,thegrowthofforeigninvestmentwasfa,,investmentgrowthisexpectedtobes,exportgrowthisexpectedtobesl,,,,weshouldseethatastheimprovementinChina’sexportconditionsisnottangibleanditsimportwillgrowfasterafterWTOaccession,thecountry’yfast,foreigndemandintermsofnetexportwilldecline,andthisyear’seconomicgrowthwillbeequaltoorslightlyhigherthanthatoflastyear,thepasttwoyears,somepositivechangesofmid-a,housing,automobile,telecommunications,infrastructureandothersectorsthatcoulddirectlyupgradeconsumptionstructureandindustrialstructureandeffectivelypushforw,foreigntransnationalcompaniesacceleratedthetransferringofpr,progresshasbeenmadeinreformingthestate-ownedenterprises,inbringingthemoutofdifficulties,andinrestructuring,reorganizing,,someenterprisesthaisesinsoutheastcoastalprovincesha,thereform,telecommunications,,initialprogresshasbeenmadeintheadjustmentandreformofgovernmentsystem,especiallyinoverhaulingtheadministrativeexaminationandapprovalsystem,,governmentrelationswithenterprises,,someispenditure;thesecondisthecontrastbetweeneconomicgrowthandeconomicefficiencyindex;andthethirdisthatwhiletheeconomyhasmaintainedafairlyfastgrowth,sitivefiscalpoliciesimplementedbythegovernmentinrecentyearsandthepoliciesofreformandadjustmentthatweredesi,therecouldbenoliberalenvironmentforthegrowthofsoci,withoutinherentdrivingforceforeconomicgrowth,thefairlyfasteconomicgrowthr,thetotalvolumeoftheChineseeconomyhasbeenconstantlyexpandingwhilethescaleofnationalbondsissuedbythegove,tosomeextent,duetotheexcessivedependenceoftheon-goingeconomicgrowth,especiallythegrowthofinvestmentandexport,yrelatedtothechangesintheexternalenvironment(forexample,thedeclininginternationaloilprices)he,protectandstrengthenthemarket-basedinherentdrivingforceforec,urtheupgradingofconsumptionstructure,suchaslowertaxesandfees,,housingmonetization,whichhasnotbeentrulyimplemented,andthemarketizationofusedhousesshouldbeexpedited,whilethe,stmententhusiasmofallinvestors,,theproactivefiscalpoliciesaimedatmaintainingeconomicgrowthrateshouldbereplacedbythefiscalpoliciesthatgiveequalemphasistosuppo,aftertheon-goingprojectssupportedbynationalbondsarebasicallycompleted,theemphasisofthefiscalpoliciesshouldshifttoincreasingthesupportforpoorpeopleandbackwardregionsandeasingthecont,itisimperativetoincreasethesupportfortheconstructionofthesocialsecuritysystem,toeasethehistoricalburdensofthestate-ownedenterprisesthatareintransition,andtopromotethecomprehensiveandsubstantialadvanceintheadjustmentofthedistributio,itisnecessarytoincreasetheinputoftheguidingfundsininfrastructureconstructionandrelatedareasandtoexpeditetheexplorationfornewmechanismstoattract,withlimitedfiscalfunds,asmuchsocialfundsaspossibletoinvestinthepublicsectorswelfare....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、DVORGuoLihongandZhangChenghuiOn22October2001,ChinaSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionhastilysuspendedtheInterimManagementMeasuresontheReductionofStateSharestoRaiseS,whichfullyreflectedtheenthusiasmofallwalksoflifeinsocietyonthedevelopmentofChina’,theStateCouncildecidedtostopthepracticeof"share-reductionthroughmarket"forstateshares,,wethinkitisanabsolutelycor,itcorrectedthemistakeinatimelymanner,soth,iteliminatedtheimpactofstatesharereductionandfocusedthenextsteponthebottleneckandsolutiontoChina’sstockmarket–,completecirculationinthestockmarketmeanstoturnthenon-tradablesharesofthelistedcompanies(includingstateshares,legalpersonsharesandinternalemployeeshares)determinedattheirinitiallistingstageintotradableshares,,,,continuouseffo,:First,inthesegregatedmarket,itisimpossibes,therearetwosetsofinterestsassessmentsystemsanddif,themarketpricesforsharesarenotvalueindicatorsofallshareholders,,sellingstatesharesatmarketpricesisnothingelsebutplunderingtheholdersofthetradableshares(seeZhangWeixingandZhangChenghui,"MarketSegregationistheRootofAllProblemsofChinaStockMarket",ResearchReportofDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,,2002).Therefore,,itisalsodifficulttobescientificandfairtoreducestatesharesbasedonotherpricemeasurements(suchasnetassets).For,suchpracticewilleasilyacceleratespeculativemanipulations,andharmboththecommoninvestorsandtheinterestsofthestateshareholder(Forexample,therepresentativesofthestateshareholderscangangupwithspeculatorstoholddownthevalueofnetassetswithillegalmeans,market,whichhavelongbeenpracticedskillfullybyspeculators).Second,statesharereductionis,whichischaracterizedbypartialandlocalreformfirstandcross-the-boardreformlater,maybesuccessfulinotherfields,,thestockmarketishighlyliquidandsensitive,whereatinyproblemofthe"experiment"willgene,withaproportionof2/3,thelargeamountofnon-tradablesharesisliketheswordofDamocleshangingabovetheheadsofinvestors,,asstatesharereductioncannotbecompletedinoneeffort,itwillgiv,,thenon-tradablestateshareswillnotbesoldoutcompletely;orelsethewithdrawingstrategicadjustmentofthestateeconomyandthe"strengtheningcombinedwithwithdrawing",torealizecompletecirculation"statesharereductionthroughmarket"aretwodifferentconcepts,whichshouldnotbemixedtogether,’sstockmarketliesinmarketsegregation,andonlybysolvingtheproblemofcompletecirculationcanotherproblemsofChina’’,relevantdepartmentformulatedprinciplestipulationsontheequivalentsharevalueofstateassetsinthelistedcompanies,thetransferconditionsandthepremiumratesofissuedshares,inordertoguaranteestate,theseambiguousstipulationscreatedsuchcustomaryrulesaslistedbelow.(1)Thesharestructureofthejointstockcompaniesisdefinedtoconsistoffourkindsofshares,namely,thestateshares,legalpersonshares,publicsharesandforeignshares;andtheproportionofthefirsttwokindsofsharesgenerallytakeup2/3ofthetotal.(2)Statesharescannotbetradedfreelyinsecurityexchangeslikepublicshares,andlegalpersonsharescanonlybetransferredamonglegalpersons.(3)Sharepr,whilethepremiumofpubliclytradab,ithastintedChina’sstockmarke(notthemarketforce)astheprincipalforcedominatingthemarket,,itistheadministrativedepartments(insteadofsponsorsoflistedcompanies)whodecideontheequitystructuresofChina’’rightstomaketheirowndecisionsoninvestment,,differentinvestorsenjoydifferentrightsandsharedifferentobligations,thuslayingdowntheunequalbasisattheinitialestablishmentstageofjointstockcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GuoLihongandZhangChenghuiOn22October2001,ChinaSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionhastilysuspendedtheInterimManagementMeasuresontheReductionofStateSharestoRaiseS,whichfullyreflectedtheenthusiasmofallwalksoflifeinsocietyonthedevelopmentofChina’,theStateCouncildecidedtostopthepracticeof"share-reductionthroughmarket"forstateshares,,wethinkitisanabsolutelycor,itcorrectedthemistakeinatimelymanner,soth,iteliminatedtheimpactofstatesharereductionandfocusedthenextsteponthebottleneckandsolutiontoChina’sstockmarket–,completecirculationinthestockmarketmeanstoturnthenon-tradablesharesofthelistedcompanies(includingstateshares,legalpersonsharesandinternalemployeeshares)determinedattheirinitiallistingstageintotradableshares,,,,continuouseffo,:First,inthesegregatedmarket,itisimpossibes,therearetwosetsofinterestsassessmentsystemsanddif,themarketpricesforsharesarenotvalueindicatorsofallshareholders,,sellingstatesharesatmarketpricesisnothingelsebutplunderingtheholdersofthetradableshares(seeZhangWeixingandZhangChenghui,"MarketSegregationistheRootofAllProblemsofChinaStockMarket",ResearchReportofDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,,2002).Therefore,,itisalsodifficulttobescientificandfairtoreducestatesharesbasedonotherpricemeasurements(suchasnetassets).For,suchpracticewilleasilyacceleratespeculativemanipulations,andharmboththecommoninvestorsandtheinterestsofthestateshareholder(Forexample,therepresentativesofthestateshareholderscangangupwithspeculatorstoholddownthevalueofnetassetswithillegalmeans,market,whichhavelongbeenpracticedskillfullybyspeculators).Second,statesharereductionis,whichischaracterizedbypartialandlocalreformfirstandcross-the-boardreformlater,maybesuccessfulinotherfields,,thestockmarketishighlyliquidandsensitive,whereatinyproblemofthe"experiment"willgene,withaproportionof2/3,thelargeamountofnon-tradablesharesisliketheswordofDamocleshangingabovetheheadsofinvestors,,asstatesharereductioncannotbecompletedinoneeffort,itwillgiv,,thenon-tradablestateshareswillnotbesoldoutcompletely;orelsethewithdrawingstrategicadjustmentofthestateeconomyandthe"strengtheningcombinedwithwithdrawing",torealizecompletecirculation"statesharereductionthroughmarket"aretwodifferentconcepts,whichshouldnotbemixedtogether,’sstockmarketliesinmarketsegregation,andonlybysolvingtheproblemofcompletecirculationcanotherproblemsofChina’’,relevantdepartmentformulatedprinciplestipulationsontheequivalentsharevalueofstateassetsinthelistedcompanies,thetransferconditionsandthepremiumratesofissuedshares,inordertoguaranteestate,theseambiguousstipulationscreatedsuchcustomaryrulesaslistedbelow.(1)Thesharestructureofthejointstockcompaniesisdefinedtoconsistoffourkindsofshares,namely,thestateshares,legalpersonshares,publicsharesandforeignshares;andtheproportionofthefirsttwokindsofsharesgenerallytakeup2/3ofthetotal.(2)Statesharescannotbetradedfreelyinsecurityexchangeslikepublicshares,andlegalpersonsharescanonlybetransferredamonglegalpersons.(3)Sharepr,whilethepremiumofpubliclytradab,ithastintedChina’sstockmarke(notthemarketforce)astheprincipalforcedominatingthemarket,,itistheadministrativedepartments(insteadofsponsorsoflistedcompanies)whodecideontheequitystructuresofChina’’rightstomaketheirowndecisionsoninvestment,,differentinvestorsenjoydifferentrightsandsharedifferentobligations,thuslayingdowntheunequalbasisattheinitialestablishmentstageofjointstockcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhiqiangResearchReport,,2000(Total1284)–,utit,:,aGerman,consideredthatglob,mostscholarsconsideredthatglobalizationshouldhavebegunfromthefirstindustrialrevolutionattheendofthe18thcentury,"globalization"firstappearedin1944,,accordingly,thatglobalizationtookshapeinthhtworldwideattentioninthe20thcenturywhereasthethirdjudgemento,thereareglaringgapsinpeople’sworldwidebecomeincreasinglycloserandthodeofproductionandtheenlargementofthemarketeconomicsystemintheentireworld,therefore,globalizationmeansWesternization,,theLisbongroupcomposingofscholarsfrommanycountriesconsiderthatglobalizationincludesthefollowingsevenaspects:theglobalizationofthepossessionoffinanceandcapital,theglobalizationofmarketandmarketstrategy,theglobalizationoftechnology,relatedscientificresearchanddevelopmentaswellasknowledge,theglobalizationoflivingstyleandthemodeofconsumptionaswellasculturallife,theglobalizationoftheadjustmentcapabilityandpoliticalcontrol,theglobalizationoftheworl,economy,science,technology,,thereislessdisagreementoneconomicglobalization,however,itcouldonlyberoughlydefinedasfollows:theinter-countryflowofcommodities(includingservices),informationandfactorsofproduction,theincreasingdegreeofmutualdependenceoftheeconomiesofallcountries,tcloseattentionwasmainlyattributedtothreephenomenathatemergedinandafterthemid-1980sintheworldeconomy:First,,theglobalcapitaltransactionvolumewasonlyUS$5,000billion,itincreasedsharplytoUS$35,000billionin1992,andisexpectedtoreachoverUS$80,mentCo,thetotalamountofmarketcapitalofthe48largestsecurityexchangesintheworldstoodatUS$31,700billionattheendof1999,surpassingtheworldgrossnationalproductforthefirsttime,andals,itsgrowthrate,,theaveragegrowthrateofgrossdomesticproductwas1%,buttheaverageannualgrowthrateofexportvolumeinglobaltradewasashighas6%%intheyear2000,higherthantheworldeconomicgrowthrate(%).Inaddition,thetradestructurealsounderwentadrasticchange,servicetradeemergedanddevelopedfast,%andaccountingfor20%,,thedevelopmentofdirectinvestmentoverseasandtheotheractivitiesbymultinationalcompaniessurpassedthegrowthrateoftheworldGDPandtrade,thegrowthrateofthesalesvolumeoftheiroverseasbenceoftheworldeconomy,itsinfluenceovertookthatofinternationaltrade,thusrewrit,theworldpoliticalenvironmentunderwentdramaticchanges,,thedétenteofinternationalrelationsprovidedafavorableinternationalenvironmentforthedevelopmentoftheworldeconomy,economicdevelopmenthasbecomeanurgenttaskforallcountries,nAsiaservedasamodelencouragingmoreandmoredevelopingcountriestoimitatethedevelopmentm,theformerrepublicsoftheSovietUnionandEasternEuropeancountriesaswellasthemajorityofsocial,thebreakthroughsinscienceandtechnoloessinoceantransportationandairtransporttechnologiesinthe1980sand1990sgreatlyredu,duringthe1990-1997period,thetransportcostofexportingcommoditiesworldwideaccountedformerely2%,long-distancetelephonecallchargefromNewYorktoLondonperthreeminutesdroppedfromUS$330in1930tomerelyUS$ductionlayoutandmanagementpossible.。

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